Menstrual cycle, period cramps, and fitness
by Pauline Six
Here’s the simple truth on a somewhat taboo subject, running and exercising during your period is possible. It’s doable – though, to be honest – it can be less than enjoyable. Here are some simple tips to help you train… every day of the month.
You’re Not Alone: Study on the 2015 London Marathon
Are you wondering if and how the pain of menstruation affects your fellow female athletes? If you feel like your performance suffers during your period, you are not alone. A survey was completed of 1,073 female participants of the 2015 London Marathon. Of these women, around 30% of them expressed that their menstrual cycle had a negative impact on their performance and training.(1)
Most women athletes are affected one way or another, so let’s take a deeper look.
Sports and the cycle phases: when to be careful
Knowledge of your cycle can be a strong ally when you’re trying to optimize your training. Take extra during your workout sessions from around day 14 until day 28 of your period. During this time there’s up to three times extra risk of ACL injuries (like rupture) to the knee.(2)
Menstrual cycle and performance
There is no formal evidence that says “menstruation is linked to underperformance” in running, or other high endurance sports.(3) However, the hormonal increase in women’s bodies can make it more difficult for the muscles to access oxygen. Other performance measurements are mostly unaffected.
What happens in your body during PMS?
Menstruation is tied to hormonal cycles. Hormone levels drop during the first phase of menstruation, which actually occurs just before the onset of menstruation. This can cause women to have disruptive symptoms that affect certain aspects of women’s training routines. We refer to this as premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Symptoms can include:
- Breast sensitivity
- Water retention
- Behavioral changes
Other physical signs can include:
Bone and joint pain, headaches, and digestive symptoms like nausea, constipation, or diarrhea.
Cramping during periods
Cramping is a real… pain. And cramping pertains to all the different pains that occur during menstruation.
Studies show us that cramping affects between 30 and 50% of all women of reproductive age. This certainly applies to a large number of women runners and athletes.
In good news, estrogen increases can actually have a positive effect on your energy levels. Your energy levels should be at their highest point during the ovulation phase (around day 14). For high-endurance sports, estrogen promotes energy storage in muscles, as well as the entry of glucose into muscle cells.
Track your cycle!
Try using a cycle tracking app to better understand your body’s unique needs. Allow yourself time off when you usually feel more tired. See if you can schedule harder workouts, competitions, and races during your ovulation phase when your energy levels might be higher.
Tips for Women Athletes During Menstruation
Pharmaceuticals & Alternative Medicine
First and foremost, ask your doctor for advice on taking pain medication during your period. Doctors often prescribe simple pain relievers such as Tylenol, or minute doses of drugs like Ibuprofen. Aspirin increases the risk of bleeding, so do not take it during your period.
You may also turn to alternative medicine treatments like homeopathy, phytotherapy, etc.
Many women athletes use contraceptives as they are intended, for birth control. However, contraceptives can be used to control menstrual cycles as well.
The best advice is to talk with your doctor before changing or using a new contraceptive method. Make sure you talk about your running and training routines and get personal advice.
Adapt Your Training So You Can Continue Running to Exercise During Your Period
If you experience painful periods or are more tired before or during your period, listen to your body. Don’t put yourself in a tough situation. However, if you’ve got the urge to burn off some steam, don’t hesitate to get a workout in.
Running and training during menstruation is totally possible. Its link to poor performance is not proven. The truth is that ever woman experiences her period differently. It is up to each of us to adapt our training approach to our current physical and mental condition.
About the author:
Pauline Six is a sports medicine physician for Running Care. She specializes in the rehabilitation of athletes (from initial diagnosis to re-training). Pauline is a passionate runner; she competes in long distance trail running and triathlons.